Immune Checkpoint LAG3 and Its Ligand FGL1 in CancerLAG3 is the most promising immune checkpoint next to PD-1 and CTLA-4. High LAG3 and FGL1 expression boosts tumor growth by inhibiting the immune microenvironment. This review comprises four sections presenting the structure/expression, interaction, biological effects, and clinical application of LAG3/FGL1. D1 and D2 of LAG3 and FD of FGL1 are the LAG3-FGL1 interaction domains. LAG3 accumulates on the surface of lymphocytes in various tumors, but is also found in the cytoplasm in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. FGL1 is found in the cytoplasm in NSCLC cells and on the surface of breast cancer cells. The LAG3-FGL1 interaction mechanism remains unclear, and the intracellular signals require elucidation. LAG3/FGL1 activity is associated with immune cell infiltration, proliferation, and secretion. Cytokine production is enhanced when LAG3/FGL1 are co-expressed with PD-1. IMP321 and relatlimab are promising monoclonal antibodies targeting LAG3 in melanoma. The clinical use of anti-FGL1 antibodies has not been reported. Finally, high FGL1 and LAG3 expression induces EGFR-TKI and gefitinib resistance, and anti-PD-1 therapy resistance, respectively. We present a comprehensive overview of the role of LAG3/FGL1 in cancer, suggesting novel anti-tumor therapy strategies.
Futility in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Search for ClarityAlthough transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has revolutionised the landscape of treatment for aortic stenosis, there exists a cohort of patients where TAVI is deemed futile. Among the pivotal high-risk trials, one-third to half of patients either died or received no symptomatic benefit from the procedure at 1 year. Futility of TAVI results in the unnecessary exposure of risk for patients and inefficient resource utilisation for
healthcare services. Several cardiac and extra-cardiac conditions and frailty increase the risk of mortality despite TAVI. read more
Self-Sustainable Wearable Textile Nano-Energy Nano-System (NENS) for Next-Generation Healthcare Applications
Temperature and Humidity Calibration of a Low-Cost Wireless Dust Sensor for Real-Time MonitoringThis paper introduces the design, calibration, and validation of a low-cost portable sensor for the real-time measurement of dust particles within the environment. The proposed design consists of low hardware cost and calibration based on temperature and humidity sensing to achieve accurate processing of airborne dust density.
Advection-enhanced kinetics in microtiter plates for improved surface assay quantitation and multiplexing capabilities
Automation for Life Science LaboratoriesThe automation of processes in all areas of the life sciences will continue to increase in the coming years due to an ever increasing number of samples to be processed Gentaur Labware, an increasing need to protect laboratory personnel from infectious material and increasing cost pressure. Depending on the requirements of the respective application, different concepts for automation systems are available, which have a different degree of automation with regard to data handling, transportation tasks, and the processing of the samples.
- Robots form a central component of these automation concepts. Classic stationary robots from the industrial sector will increasingly be replaced by new developments in the field of light-weight robots.
- In addition, mobile robots will also be of particular importance in the automation of life science laboratories in the future, especially for transportation tasks between different manual and (partially) automated stations.
- With an increasing number of different, highly diverse processes, the need for special devices and system components will also increase.
- This applies to both, the handling of the labware and the processing of the samples. In contrast to previous automation strategies with a highly parallel approach, future developments will increasingly be characterized by individual sample handling.
Fluorescence-based Single-cell Analysis of Whole-mount-stained and Cleared Microtissues and Organoids for High Throughput ScreeningThree-dimensional (3D) cell culture, especially in the form of organ-like microtissues (“organoids”), has emerged as a novel tool potentially mimicking human tissue biology more closely than standard two-dimensional culture. Typically, tissue sectioning is the standard method for immunohistochemical analysis. However, it removes cells from their native niche and can result in the loss of 3D context during analyses.
- Automated workflows require parallel processing and analysis of hundreds to thousands of samples, and sectioning is mechanically complex, time-intensive, and thus less suited for automated workflows.
- Here, we present a simple protocol for combined whole-mount immunostaining, tissue-clearing, and optical analysis of large-scale (approx. 1 mm) 3D tissues with single-cell level resolution.
- While the protocol can be performed manually, it was specifically designed to be compatible with high-throughput applications and automated liquid handling systems.
- This approach is freely scalable and allows parallel automated processing of large sample numbers in standard labware.
- We have successfully applied the protocol to human mid- and forebrain organoids, but, in principle, the workflow is suitable for a variety of 3D tissue samples to facilitate the phenotypic discovery of cellular behaviors in 3D cell culture-based high-throughput screens.
- Graphic abstract: Automatable organoid clearing and high-content analysis workflow and timeline.
Gold-Polyoxoborates Nanocomposite Prohibits Adsorption of Bacteriophages on Inner Surfaces of Polypropylene Labware and Protects Samples from Bacterial and Yeast InfectionsBacteriophages (phages) are a specific type of viruses that infect bacteria. Because of growing antibiotic resistance among bacterial strains, phage-based therapies are becoming more and more attractive. The critical problem is the storage of bacteriophages. Recently, it was found that bacteriophages might adsorb on the surfaces of plastic containers, effectively decreasing the titer of phage suspensions. Here, we showed that a BOA nanocomposite (gold nanoparticles embedded in polyoxoborate matrix) deposited onto the inner walls of the containers stabilizes phage suspensions against uncontrolled adsorption and titer decrease. Additionally, BOA provides antibacterial and antifungal protection. The application of BOA assures safe and sterile means for the storage of bacteriophages.
Adsorption of bacteriophages on polypropylene labware affects the reproducibility of phage researchHydrophobicity is one of the most critical factors governing the adsorption of molecules and objects, such as virions, on surfaces. Even moderate change of wetting angle of plastic surfaces causes a drastic decrease ranging from 2 to 5 logs of the viruses (e.g., T4 phage) in the suspension due to adsorption on polymer vials’ walls.
- The effect varies immensely in seemingly identical containers but purchased from different vendors. Comparison of glass, polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene containers revealed a threshold in the wetting angle of around 95°: virions adsorb on the surface of more hydrophobic containers, while in more hydrophilic vials, phage suspensions are stable.
- The polypropylene surface of the Eppendorf-type and Falcon-type can accommodate from around 108 PFU/ml to around 1010 PFU/ml from the suspension.
- The adsorption onto the container’s wall might result in complete scavenging of virions from the bulk. We developed two methods to overcome this issue.
- The addition of surfactant Tween20 and/or plasma treatment provides a remedy by modulating surface wettability and inhibiting virions’ adsorption.
- Plastic containers are essential consumables in the daily use of many bio-laboratories.
- Thus, this is important not only for phage-related research (e.g., the use of phage therapies as an alternative for antibiotics) but also for data comparison and reproducibility in the field of biochemistry and virology.
Resonant acoustic rheometry for non-contact characterization of viscoelastic biomaterials read more
Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua) seedling basal rot caused by Fusarium redolens in China
Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Taylor, A., et al. 2016. Mol. Plant Pathol. 17:1032. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12346 Fan, S. H., et al. 2021. Plant Dis. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2519-PDN Rafique, K., et al. 2020 read more
Nitrogen resource recovery from mature leachate via heat extraction technology: An engineering project applicationA large pool of ammonia in mature leachate is challenging to treat with a membrane bioreactor system to meet the discharge Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste in China (GB 16889-2008) without external carbon source addition. In this study, an engineering leachate treatment project with a scale of 2,000 m3/d was operated to evaluate the ammonia heat extraction system (AHES), which contains preheat, decomposition, steam-stripping, ammonia recovery, and centrifuge dewatering. The operation results showed that NH3-N concentrations of raw leachate and treated effluent from an ammonia heat extraction system (AHES) were 1,305-2,485 mg/L and 207-541 mg/L, respectively. The ratio of COD/NH3-N increased from 1.40-1.84 to 7.69-28.00. Nitrogen was recovered in the form of NH4HCO3 by the ammonia recovery tower with the introduction of CO2, wherein the mature leachate can offer 37% CO2 consumption. The unit consumptions of steam and power were 8.0% and 2.66 kWh/m3 respectively, and the total operation cost of AHES was 2.06 USD per cubic metre of leachate. These results confirm that heat extraction is an efficient and cost-effective technology for the recovery of nitrogen resource from mature leachate.
Field Determination of Phosphate in Environmental Water by Using a Hand-Powered Paper Centrifuge for Preconcentration and Digital Image Colorimetric SensingPhosphate concentration in natural water has been used as a water quality indicator, as it is one of the major nutrients for aquatic plants. However, the traditional phosphomolybdenum blue (PMB) method has limited sensitivity for visual or camera-based detection, leading to underestimation of the phosphate concentration. We present an ultralow-cost, rapid field preconcentration and digital image colorimetric sensing of low-concentration phosphate method for water analysis. A novel hand-powered paper centrifuge (paperfuge) is used for sample preparation and preconcentration. This paperfuge is made of two circular paper discs and a string. Six centrifuge tubes (CTs) originally used as glue dispensing tips with a sample capacity of ∼230 μL, are loaded on the paperfuge. After sampling, phosphate in the water sample is reacted to form PMB. Then, the reacted sample is drawn into a CT using an autopipette before the CT bottom is sealed by glue. After Oasis HLB sorbents are added through the top of the CT, the CT top is also sealed with glue. The HLB sorbents adsorb PMB and are accumulated in the CT tip through centrifugation. The CT tips are cut and analyzed with the ImageJ software. It was found that the blue color intensity of sorbents is in a linear relationship to the phosphate concentration, with a linear range of 0-5 μM (r 2 = 0.9921) and limit of detection of 0.19 μM. In addition, this method has been applied to in-field water analysis. The results are in agreement with the standard PMB method.
Pyridine-functional diblock copolymer nanoparticles synthesized via RAFT-mediated polymerization-induced self-assembly: effect of solution pHPolymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization has become widely recognized as a versatile and efficient strategy to prepare complex block copolymer nanoparticles with controlled morphology, size, and surface functionality. In this article, we report the preparation of cationic sterically-stabilized poly(2-vinylpyridine)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) (P2VP-PBzMA) diblock copolymer nanoparticles via RAFT-mediated PISA under aqueous emulsion polymerization conditions. It is demonstrated that the solution pH during PISA has a dramatic effect on the resulting P2VP-PBzMA nanoparticles, as judged by dynamic light scattering (DLS), disc centrifuge photosedimentometry (DCP) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Varying the solution pH results in the P2VP stabilizer having different solubilities due to protonation/deprotonation of the pyridine groups. This allows P2VP-PBzMA nanoparticles with tunable diameters to be prepared by altering the DP of the stabilizer (P2VP) and/or core-forming block (PBzMA), or simply by changing the solution pH for a fixed copolymer composition. For example, P2VP-PBzMA nanoparticles with larger diameters can be obtained at higher solution pH as the protonation degree of the P2VP stabilizer has a large effect on both the aggregation of polymer chains during the PISA process, and the resulting behavior of the diblock copolymer nanoparticles. Changing the dispersion pH post-polymerization has a relatively limited effect on particle diameter. Furthermore, aqueous electrophoresis studies indicate that these P2VP-PBzMA nanoparticles had good colloidal stability and high cationic charge (>30 mV) below pH 5 and can be dispersed readily over a wide pH range.
Simultaneous determination of 36 hypotensive drugs in fingerprints by ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole composite linear ion trap mass spectrometry read more
Malva parviflora Leaves Mucilage: An Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Biopolymer with Antioxidant Properties
A Novel Brighter Bioluminescent Fusion Protein Based on ZZ Domain and Amydetes vivianii Firefly Luciferase for ImmunoassaysImmunoassays are widely used for detection of antibodies against specific antigens in diagnosis, as well as in electrophoretic techniques such as Western Blotting. They usually rely on colorimetric, fluorescent or chemiluminescent methods for detection. Whereas the chemiluminescence methods are more sensitive and widely used, they usually suffer of fast luminescence decay. Here we constructed a novel bioluminescent fusion protein based on the N-terminal ZZ portion of protein A and the brighter green-blue emitting Amydetes vivianii firefly luciferase. In the presence of D-luciferin/ATP assay solution, the new fusion protein displays higher bioluminescence activity, is very thermostable and produces a sustained emission (t1/2 > 30 min). In dot blots, we could successfully detect rabbit IgG against firefly luciferases, Limpet Haemocyanin, and SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-250 ng), as well as the antigen bound antibodies using either CCD imaging, and even photography using smartphones. Using CCD imaging, we could detect up to 100 pg of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein. Using this system, we could also successfully detect firefly luciferase and SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein in Western Blots (5-250 ng). Comparatively, the new fusion protein displays slightly higher and more sustained luminescent signal when compared to commercial HRP-labeled secondary antibodies, constituting a novel promising alternative for Western Blotting and immunoassays.
Long-Lasting Luminol Chemiluminescence Emission with 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic Acid Copper(II) Complex on PaperAs most of the known systems are flashtype, long-lasting chemiluminescence (CL) emissions are extremely needed for the application of cold light sources, accurate CL quantitative analysis, and biological mapping. In this work, the flashtype system of luminol was altered to a long lasting CL system just because of the paper substrate. The Cu(II)-based organic complex was loaded on the paper surface, which can trigger luminol-H2O2 to produce a long lasting CL emission for over 30 min. By using 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) as the ligand, a hexacoordinated Cu(II)-based organic complex was synthesized by the simple freeze-drying method. It is interesting that the complex morphology can be controlled by adding different amounts of water in the synthesizing procedure. The complex with a certain size can be definitely trapped in the pores of the cellulose.
- Then, slow diffusion, which can be attributed to the long lasting CL emission, was produced. With the high catalytic activity of the complex, reactive oxygen species from H2O2 was generated and was responsible for the high CL intensity.
- By using the paper substrate, the flash-type luminol system can be easily transferred to the long-duration CL system without any extra reagent.
- This long-lasting emission system was used for hydrogen sulfide detection by the CL imaging method.
- This paper-based sensor has great potential for CL imaging in the clinical field in the future.
Insight into the Ozone-Assisted Low-Temperature Combustion of Dimethyl Ether by Means of Stabilized Cool FlamesThe low-temperature combustion kinetics of dimethyl ether (DME) were studied by means of stabilized cool flames in a heated stagnation plate burner configuration using ozone-seeded premixed flows of DME/O2. Direct imaging of CH2O* chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence of CH2O were used to determine the flame front positions in a wide range of lean and ultra-lean equivalence ratios and ozone concentrations for two strain rates. The temperature and species mole fraction profiles along the flame were measured by coupling thermocouples, gas chromatography, micro-chromatography, and quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis. A new kinetic model was built on the basis of the Aramco 1.3 model, coupled with a validated submechanism of O3 chemistry, and was updated to improve the agreement with the obtained experimental results and experimental data available in the literature. The main results show the efficiency of the tested model to predict the flame front position and temperature in every tested condition, as well as the importance of reactions typical of atmospheric chemistry in the prediction of cool flame occurrence. The agreement on the fuel and major products is overall good, except for methanol, highlighting some missing kinetic pathways for the DME/O2/O3 system, possibly linked to the direct addition of atomic oxygen on the fuel radical, modifying the product distribution after the cool flame.
Advanced image analysis-based evaluation of protein antibody microarray chemiluminescence signal improves glioma type identification by blood serum proteins concentrations read more