• March 4, 2024

Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua) seedling basal rot caused by Fusarium redolens in China

Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua) seedling basal stem rot caused by Fusarium redolens in China Tao Tang1, Fanfan Wang1, Jie Guo1, Xiaoliang Guo1, Yuanyuan Duan1,Jingmao You1* 1 Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Enshi, 445000, China. Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua), a herbal medicine, that is mostly planted in several provinces in China. In April 2020, severe diseases with about 40% seedling losse was found in the Huangjing seedling base in Shiyan city, Hubei province. The symptoms included softening and decay of the roots and stem bases, a progressive yellowing and wilting of leaves, and finally being completely rotted. Small pieces of symptomatic stems (0.5 cm in length) and leaves (0.5 × 0.5 cm in size) were surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s, followed by 0.1% HgCl2 for 1 min, rinsed three times with sterile water, and then dried with sterilized absorbent paper. The sections were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium containing 10 µg/ml of ampicillin and incubated at 25°C in the dark. After 3 days incubation, eight isolates with the same colony morphology were sub-cultured and purified by hyphal tip isolation. Macroconidia were sickle-shaped, 15.8 – 32.3 × 3.1 – 5.6 μm (n = 25), and three to five septate. Microconidia were oval or kidney-shaped, 5.2 – 11.4 × 2.0 – 3.2 μm (n = 25), and zero to one septate. To confirm the identity of the pathogen, molecular identification was performed with strain HJCD1. Following DNA extraction, PCR was performed using the TSINGKE 2×T5 Direct PCR Mix kit. Target areas of amplification were the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1α (TEF-1α) using ITS1/4 (White et al. 1990) , EF1/EF2 (Taylor et al. 2016), respectively. Following BLAST searches and phylogenetic reconstruction, the ITS region (GenBank MW485770.1) showed 99% identity with those of Fusarium redolens in GenBank (KU350713.1) and the TEF-1α (GenBank MW503930.1) showed 100% identity with F. redolens GenBank (MK922537.1). Pathogenicity tests were performed to fulfill Koch’s postulates. Huangjing seedlings were rinsed with sterile water, wiped clean with sterile absorbent paper, and transferred to a tray covered with wet filter paper to maintain high humidity. The mycelial piugs of F. redolens HJCD1 were inoculated onto the surface of leaves and basal stems. Controls were inoculated with sterile PDA plugs. The inoculated seedlings were sealed with plastic wrap, and then cultivated in a 25 ℃ growth chamber with 16 h of light per day. The pathogen-inoculated plants Gentaur PCR Filter Tips exhibited etiolation and typical wilt symptoms after 4 days, whereas no symptoms were observed in the control plants. F. redolens was reisolated from the infected tissues, and colony morphology and ITS sequence of re-isolates were same as that of HJCD1. The pathogen has been reported previously in american ginseng in China (Fan et al. 2021), lentil in Pakistan (Rafique et al. 2020), and wild rocket in United Kingdom (Taylor et al. 2019). However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of F. redolent causing seelding basal rot on Duohua huangjing in China. References: White, T. J., et al. 1990. Page 315 in: PCR

Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Taylor, A., et al. 2016. Mol. Plant Pathol. 17:1032. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12346 Fan, S. H., et al. 2021. Plant Dis. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2519-PDN Rafique, K., et al. 2020 read more

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Evaluation of Antitermite Properties of Wood Extracts from Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre (Leguminosae) against Subterranean Termites

Termiticide, repellent and antifeedant activities of extracts from Pongamia pinnata wood were evaluated against Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann) at three different concentrations preceded by a preliminary choice and no-choice tests for natural resistance of tested wood. Termites’ mortality was determined in each case of extract and solvent treated Whatman filter paper. Finally, wooden blocks of poplar (19×19×19 mm) were treated with extracts and respective solvents and exposed to termites in the field for 28 days. Minimum mean weight loss was observed in dried P. pinnata (6.38%), followed by fresh P. pinnata in choice tests. In no-choice tests, dried P. pinnata was comparatively resistant with a weight loss of 12.37%, followed by fresh P. pinnata and P. deltoides. In toxicity bioassay, ethyl acetate-based wood extracts caused the highest mortality (41.66%), followed by petroleum ether, hexane, and water extracts at 10 mg/ml concentration. Similarly, ethyl acetate-based extracts showed maximum repellency (100%) followed by Gentaur Whatman Paper petroleum ether extracts at 10 mg/ml and ethyl acetate at 5 mg/ml after 60 min of termite exposure. Minimum wood losses were observed in woods treated with ethyl acetate extracts compared to control and other treatments in field experiments.

Isolation of Halomicroarcula pellucida strain GUMF5, an archaeon from the Dead Sea-Israel possessing cellulase

A strain designated GUMF5 was isolated in Goa-India from sediments of Dead Sea-Israel and identified as haloarchaeon Halomicroarcula pellucida based on 16S rRNA gene analysis similarity value of 99.84%. Strain GUMF5 grew on mineral salts medium with 20% NaCl and 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose-sodium (CMC-Na) as a sole source of carbon and produced haloextremozyme cellulase. The enzyme was concentrated using Sephadex G20, precipitated with ethanol, dialyzed and retentate purified using Sephadex G200, the size exclusion chromatography. A yield of 78.53% cellulase with an activity of 131.13 U/mg and 1.24-fold purity was obtained. The purified cellulase had optimum activity at 20% NaCl, at 40 ºC, 0.5% CMC-Na, pH 7 and 150 rpm. SDS-PAGE combined with zymographic analysis revealed the molecular weight of cellulase as 240 kDa, 40 kDa and 17.4 kDa. The activity of the enzyme was stimulated by metallic cations in the order of Ca+2 > Mn+2 > Mg+2 > SO4 2- > NH4 + and was inhibited by Ag+ > Fe+2 > Cu+2. Methanol and ethanol enhanced the cellulase activity by 6% and 26%, respectively. The haloextremozyme cellulase degraded Whatman No. 1 filter paper indicated in scanning electron micrographs, exposure of open pores and fibers without any intra connectivity corresponding to paperase activity and implicating the possible use of enzyme to bio-convert cellulosic waste. Conclusively, Halomicroarcula pellucida GUMF5 (Accession number: MH244431), globally, is the only Halomicroarcula pellucida isolated from the sediments of Dead Sea producing haloextremozyme cellulase, and hence is an important biotechnological resource.

Functional Comparison of Bioactive Cellulose Materials Incorporating Engineered Binding Proteins

Whatman No. 1 chromatography paper is widely used as a substrate for cellulose-based immunoassays. The immobilized proteins are used to capture target biomarkers for detection. However, alternative paper substrates may facilitate mass production of immunoassays as diagnostic tests. Here, we assessed the physical characteristics and protein immobilization capabilities of different commercial papers. Some substrates fulfilled our design criteria, including adequate flow rate and sufficient protein immobilization for efficient target capture. This study demonstrates that a variety of paper substrates can be bioactivated and used to capture target biomarkers, enabling development of affordable diagnostic tests from a range of starting materials.

A practical method for storage, preservation and transportation of anuran urine samples using filter paper for hormone analysis

Anurans (frogs and toads) expelled urine when handled and it could provide insights into their physiological status. However, storage, preservation and transportation are often challenging. The study aimed to standardize and validate a field method for short-term storage and preserve of anuran urine samples using Whatman filter papers. To examine the efficacy of storage conditions and type of papers, urinary based enzyme immunoassays were used to measure progesterone and testosterone hormone metabolites.
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography was performed and revealed immunoreactive progesterone and testosterone metabolites in the urine samples.
  • Urinary hormone metabolites concentration stored in filter paper at room temperature and control samples stored in -20°C for the same period were similar. 
  • Whatman grade 50 was found to be more suitable for storage of hormones than grade 3 paper for the experiments performed.
  • A cheap and simple storage method for storage of anuran urine in field conditions using filter papers.•Anuran urine could be preserved and transported under ambient conditions without significant changes and loss of hormones.•This method would facilitate the endocrine monitoring of anurans in remote areas where limited logistics are available.

Evaluating performance of multiplex real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria at elimination targeted low transmission settings of Ethiopia read more

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